By 1930, European imperial control was firmly established throughout the Arab world. The hopes for self-determination that had been aroused in the aftermath of the First World War lay crushed beneath the new Mandate system, the old protectorates, and the burdens of unequal treaty arrangements. In this atmosphere, those Arab politicians and intellectuals who had advocated the emulation of European political and social practices were increasingly discredited. In place of alien institutions, various Arab spokesmen began to advocate the adoption of more familiar forms of political association as the means through which to restore political independence and the proper social order. Thus, the Muslim Brotherhood was founded in Egypt in 1929, the Islamic Congress of Jerusalem was held in 1931, and associations of Muslim youth began to organize throughout the Arab world. La Nation Arabe was a catalyst for this renewed spirit of Islamic-oriented political activism and soon became a powerful and influential organ, both in Europe and the Arab world.
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